Vygotskij's approach concerning the development of language and thought in the child is reviewed and delineated against the major approaches in his time. Vygotskij's critique on Piaget's early works is reviewed. Emphasis is laid on methodological issues, which are stated to be too often neglected in the practice of modern research. This is illustrated by Vygotskij's conceptualization and research on the development of thought and speech, and egocentric speech in particular. Vygotskij's attempts in developing a non-reductionistic scientific psychology area valuable contribution, still underestimated, to the methodological solution of the so called stagnation and crisis in this branche of science. Vygotskij was undoubtedly far ahead of his time. He tried to overcome the dualistic split in scientific theory and practice, carved out in history by the opposition of objectivism and subjectivism. This schism in scientific theory and practice still causes the unproductive repetition of the same basic viewpoints. Reactualizing Vygotskij's bright arguments might offer a possible way out from this dead-end. This might especially be true for a further elaboration of the connections between Vygotskij, Freud, modem linguistics and (French) psychoanalysis: tempting connections the author only aims to hint at.