Antipsychotics in the treatment of Tourette disorder: a review
background Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (gts) is a neuropsychiatric disorder, characterised by the presence of multiple motor and vocal tics. Some gts patients need pharmacological treatment. Patients who have a moderate to severe tic syndrome are usually treated with antipsychotics.
aim To provide a literature review of the use of typical and atypical antipsychotics as well as dopamine agonists in patients with gts.
method Publications in the Medline database from 1970 onwards were used, as well as literature references from books and book chapters. The following search terms were used: 'treatment', 'psychopharmaca', 'psychopharmacological treatment', 'medication', 'antipsychotics', 'D2 antagonists', 'D2 agonists' and 'atypical antipsychotics'.
results A few controlled short-term studies had been performed on haloperidol, pimozide, risperidone and pergolide. These agents all appeared to be effective in the short term, with risperidone showing fewest side-effects.
conclusion Surprisingly few controlled studies have been performed on antipsychotics in gts. Future studies should focus on what the second step should be in the case of treatmentresistant patients, on comparisons between drug therapy and behavioural therapy and on identifying predictors of drug response.