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Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie 60 (2018) 9, 606 - 618

Review article

The Klinefelter syndrome: a systematic review of secondary psychiatric comorbidities

R. Ballegeer, K. Demyttenaere, W. Simons

background Klinefelter syndrome (ks) is the most common type of sex chromosome aneuploidy and is associated with psychiatric comorbidities. ks is only diagnosed in less than half of the cases due to the heterogeneous phenotype.
aim This study investigates the prevalence of secondary psychiatric diseases and their treatment in ks patients.
method Relevant articles were identified using the PubMed database. We included articles published in the last ten years, concerning ks patients who were assessed for comorbidities.
results A total of 50 articles were included. The most prevalent comorbidities were language disorders and autism spectrum symptoms. Only half the ks population was treated (50.4%) with the primary treatment consisting of hormone therapy. 14% of patients were never treated hormonally.
conclusion Psychiatric comorbidities were observed in many patients with ks. The early diagnosis of ks in patients is important, given that inadequate treatment of ks patients can lead to reduced social functioning.

keywords aneuploidy, developmental disorder, Klinefelter syndrome, psychiatric disorder, sex chromosome disorder