A revised Dutch version of the Zung-scale as a measure of trait-depression
In this article research is reported on the measurement of dispositional depression with the Zung-scale. After a short introduction to the state-trait conception of depression, a revision of Dutch versions of the Zung-scale is described. Results are presented on the measurement of trait-depression in students, adults, medical and psychiatric patients. Mean depression scores for students and adults fall about one standard deviation below the cut-off score for clinical depression. Psychiatric patients' scores average about one standard deviation about this cutting point. The reliability of the scale appears to be satisfactory. Correlations with remaining trait variables show significant relations with anxiety, anger, neuroticism and coping styles. The continuity of the results with findings from the clinical depression literature is discussed.