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Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie 53 (2011) 1, 15 - 25

Review article

Auditory hallucinations. Nomenclature and classification

J.D. Blom, I.E.C. Sommer

background We are rapidly increasing our knowledge about the correlates of auditory hallucinations. If we are to understand and integrate this new knowledge it is essential that the nomenclature for this special area is clear and unambiguous.
aim To review and to re-evaluate the concept of auditory hallucinations belonging to classical psychiatry.
method Relevant data were collected from books, PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane Library.
results On the basis of our findings we present different classifications for auditory hallucinations.
conclusions Our review emphasises the need for a re-appraisal of these concepts, clearer definitions and an improved nomenclature. These will make it easier to set up, conduct and interpret neurological studies of these frequently occurring phenomena.

keywords auditory hallucination, classification, lateralisation phenomena, neurobiological correlates, tinnitus