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Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie 57 (2015) 2, 120 - 124

Short report

Risk factors for tardive movement disorders in schizophrenia

D.E. Tenback, P.R. Bakker, P.N. van Harten

background Tardive movement disorders are common among patients with schizophrenia. Risk factors for movement disorders are of the utmost importance in the context of preventive strategies.
aim To achieve clearer classification of movement disorders in schizophrenia, to identify the risk factors involved and thereby develop strategies to prevent movement disorders.
method We searched PubMed for prospective studies which had been performed in homogeneous target populations with schizophrenia and which contained well-defined definitions of the movement disorders. From these we selected studies in which risk factors were repeatedly identified.
results Tardive dyskinesia is well documented. Risk factors for developing tardive dyskinesia are use of antipsychotics, particularly those belonging to the first generation, ‘not belonging to the Caucasian race’, early extrapyramidal symptoms and older age. So far, there is very little conclusive evidence regarding the genetics of tardive movement disorders.
conclusion With regard to tardive dyskinesia, not belonging to the Caucasian race and old age are two risk factors that can be quickly determined for the purpose of prevention. In this case it leads to the choice of medication with a low D2 affinity. Furthermore, it is advisable, after commencing treatment with an antipsychotic drug, to evaluate on a regular basis if the patient is showing (early) signs of TD. If TD does occur, there is a choice between medication with a low D-2 affinity or clozapine.

keywords acathisia, dyskinesia, epidemiology, movement disorders, schizophrenia, risk factors