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Tijdschrift voor Psychiatrie 53 (2011) 9, 679 - 684

Short report

Diagnosis and assessment of psychopathological symptoms in Parkinson’s disease

J.S.A.M. Reijnders, A.F.G Leentjens

summary
background Parkinson’s disease(pd) is a multidimensional disorder characterized primarily by motor symptoms, but often accompanied by non-motor symptoms, including psychopathological and autonomic symptoms.
aim To provide an overview of current knowledge concerning the diagnosis, assessment and epidemiologyofanumberof psychopathological syndromes in pd.
methods Relevant literature is discussed.
results Depressive disorders, apathy, anxiety, cognitive impairment and hallucinations are all common in pd. For most of these syndromes, there is consensus regarding diagnostic criteria, and reliable rating scales are available. In general, an inclusive approach is recommended, which means that without interpretation or attribution, all symptoms present contribute to a psychopathological diagnosis. All psychopathological syndromes are more common in the hypokinetic rigid subtype of the disease.
conclusion The recognition and treatment of psychopathological symptoms in pd require specific expertise. In the treatment of pd patients, therefore, it is essential that there should be multidisciplinary collaboration between the neurologist, the neuropsychologist and the psychiatrist.

keywords anxiety, apathy, cognitive impairment, depression, hallucinations, Parkinson’s disease